A United Nations war-crimes tribunal in The Hague has convicted Radovan Karadzic, the former Bosnian Serb leader, of genocide for the 1995 massacres of 8,000 Muslim boys and men. On a separate charge, the panel found Karadzic criminally responsible for murder, but not a separate charge of genocide in a conflict that drove Bosnian Muslims and Croats out of villages in the mid-1990s, leaving 100,000 people dead. The panel also found Karadzic guilty of attacking civilians and terror for his part in a 44-month siege of Sarajevo during the war. He was facing a total of 11 charges, and he was sentenced to 40 years in prison. Presiding Judge O-Gon Kwon said Karadzic ordered snipers and shelling to hit the city’s civilians in particular as a means of achieving his own political goals. Kwon called Karadzic “instrumental” in the campaign by Bosnian Serb forces.