The uproar over a Nobel judge’s recent putdown of American literature had bibliophiles speculating that the committee might be guilted into honoring Philip Roth. They were wrong. France’s Jean Marie Gustave le Clezio has won the prize. The Academy called Le Clezio, 68, an ''author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization.'' His novels include Desert, Terra Amata, The Book of Flights, War, and The Giants.