The California and Pittsburgh synagogue shootings are part of a nationwide uptick in physical violence against American Jews, the Los Angeles Times reports. According to a new study released Tuesday by the Anti-Defamation League, 59 Jews were the victims of physical assault in 2018—which includes the 13 congregants killed or wounded in the Tree of Life massacre—up from 21 assault victims in 2017. The study found that there were a total of 1,879 anti-Semitic incidents reported last year, a figure obtained from police reports, victim accounts, and news articles. Nearly 98 percent of those incidents involved harassment or vandalism, the study said. The total is the third-highest since the ADL began tracking such incidents about 40 years ago.